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“Fitness” is an important indicator of one’s physical and mental functioning. In particular, good Health-related Physical Fitness (including cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, as well as body composition) is related to lower rates of cardiovascular diseases, better sleep quality, mood, and quality of life. Participating schools of the Project are recommended to conduct fitness tests for students on a regular basis. This will enable teachers and researchers to understand students’ performances in various aspects of physical fitness. The Project has suggested a set of internationally recognised assessment methods for teachers to follow.


Health-Related Fitness Components

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The concept of “physical fitness” was first put forward in a report released by The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in 1996. In simple terms, “physical fitness” refers to the ability of the body to adapt to external environment such as leisure, emergencies and stress outside of work.  There are two kinds of physical fitness, namely Health-related Physical Fitness and Sports-related Physical Fitness.

Health-related Physical Fitness consists of 5 components:

Cardiorespiratory Endurance: The lungs and heart work together to pump oxygen to working muscles and tissues. Improving cardiorespiratory endurance enable you to physically perform for longer without getting tired. It also helps boost one’s efficiency in carrying out everyday activities.

Muscular Strength and Endurance: Muscular strength refers to the amount of force you can put forth with your muscles, while muscular endurance refers to how many timesyou can move that weight without getting exhausted.  Good muscular strength and endurance can promote health, prevent injuries and improve work efficiency. Muscular strength and endurance can be built up by doing weight training.

Flexibility: It is the range of movement through which a joint or sequence of joints can move.People with goodflexibility can move freely and are likely to have better posture. Poor flexibility limits proper joint motion.

Body Composition: Several formulas can be used to measure body composition, such as body fat ratio, Body Mass Index (BMI),waist–hip ratio etc. Having a value within the normal range means that you have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease.

Sports-related Physical Fitness involves skills that will enhance one’s performance in athletic or sports events. It includes components of agility, coordination, balance, speed, power, and reaction time.

Fitness Assessment

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Fitness data is collected from participating students to help understand their current bodily conditions. With such an understanding, improvement plans can be designed to enhance learning and teaching at schools. Below are the fitness tests adopted by the Fun to Move@JC Project, namely:

1. BMI

2. FITNESSGRAM® Shoulder Stretch


4. 6 minutesfor 9 years old or below/ 9 minutesfor 10 years old or aboverunning/walking test

1. Body Mass Index

ObjectiveMeasuring body composition

Equipment requiredstadiometerweight scalecalculatorpen and record sheet

Testing Procedures:

  1. Shoes off; light clothing
  2. Measuring height in meter
  3. Measuring weight in kilogram
  4. Apply formula (weight(kg) / height2(meter2) to calculate your body mass index

2. FITNESSGRAM® Shoulder Stretch

Objective: Testing upper limbs’ flexibility

Equipment requiredpen and record sheet

Testing Procedures:

  1. Stand up and stay relaxed
  2. Reach with right hand over the right shoulder and down the back as if to pull up a zipper or scratch between the shoulder blades
  3. At the same time, place the left hand behind the back and reach up, trying to touch the fingers of the right hand
  4. Test the reverse side


ObjectiveTesting abdominal muscle endurance

Equipment required: gym mat with measuring stripa strip of 3 inches wide is used for 5- to 9-year-olds; older students should use a strip that is 4.5 inches wide);A4 paper; curl-up audiopen and record sheet

Starting position

•   Partner A lies in a supine position on the mat

•    Knees bent at an angle of approximately 140 degrees

•    Feet flat on the floor, legs slightly apart

•    Arms straight and parallel to the trunk with palms of hands resting on the mat

•    The head is in contact with the A4 paper

Testing Procedures

  1. Partner A’s fingertips are just resting on the nearest edge of the measuring strip
  2. Partner B kneels down at partner A’s head in a position to count curl-ups and watch for form breaks
  3. Place the A4 paper under partner A’s head. It will assist partner B in judging if partner A’s head touches down on each repetition **Remarks: The A4 paper becomes wrinkled if the partner A is not using his/ her abdominal muscles for the movement
  4. Keeping heels in contact with the mat, partner A curls up slowly, sliding fingers across the measuring strip until fingertips reach the other side; then partner A curls back down until his or her head touches the piece of paper on the mat. Movement should be slow and gauged to the specified cadence of about 20 curl-ups per minute
  5. Partner A continues without pausing until he or she can no longer continue or has completed 75 curl-ups

4. 6 minutesfor 9 years old or below/ 9 minutesfor 10 years old or aboverunning/walking test

Objective: Testing cardiorespiratory endurance

Equipment required: timermarkers (the suggested distance between the markers is 10 meters)whistlepen and record sheet

Testing Procedures:

  1. Student runs or walks as far as possible within 6 or 9 minutes. The running or walking distance will be marked
  2. Teacher should remind student accelerate gradually and remain the steady speed.
  3. Teacher gives out a signal to remind students at last 3 minutes and 15 seconds, and remind their partner to record the distance
  4. Students keep running until hearing the ending signal. They should keep walking one or two laps for cool down after the test
  5. If students cannot keep running, they can choose to walk. Teacher should give them encouragement during the test